Regulatory Network in Protein Phosphorylation
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Kinase: ATR ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related

Group: Atypical      Family: PIKK      Subfamily: ATR

Description: ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related

Gene Symbol: ATR

Synonyms: FRP1, MEC1, SCKL, SCKL1

UniprotKB/SwissProt: ATR_HUMAN (Q13535)

Function: Serine/threonine protein kinase which activates checkpoint signaling upon genotoxic stresses such as ionizing radiation (IR), ultraviolet light (UV), or DNA replication stalling, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. Recognizes the substrate consensus sequence [ST]-Q. Phosphorylates BRCA1, CHEK1, MCM2, RAD17, RPA2, SMC1 and TP53/p53, which collectively inhibit DNA replication and mitosis and promote DNA repair, recombination and apoptosis. Phosphorylates 'Ser-139' of histone variant H2AX/H2AFX at sites of DNA damage, thereby regulating DNA damage response mechanism. Required for FANCD2 ubiquitination. Critical for maintenance of fragile site stability and efficient regulation of centrosome duplication.

Subcellular Localization: Nucleus. Note=Depending on the cell type, it can also be found in PML nuclear bodies. Recruited to chromatin during S-phase. Redistributes to discrete nuclear foci upon DNA damage, hypoxia or replication fork stalling.

Protein Domain:

The substrate proteins of kinase ATR

No.Gene NameUniProtKB IDProtein DescriptionNumber of kinase-specific phosphorylation sitesView
1ATRIPATRIP_HUMANATR-interacting protein (ATM and Rad3-related-interacting protein). 4Show
2BRCA1BRCA1_HUMANBreast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (RING finger protein 53). 17Show
3CHEK1CHK1_HUMANSerine/threonine-protein kinase Chk1 (EC 2.7.11.1). 6Show
4CHEK2CHK2_HUMANSerine/threonine-protein kinase Chk2 (EC 2.7.11.1) (Cds1). 6Show
5CREB1CREB1_HUMANcAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). 1Show
6E2F1E2F1_HUMANTranscription factor E2F1 (E2F-1) (Retinoblastoma-binding protein 3)(RBBP-3) (PRB-binding protein E2F-1) (PBR3) (Retinoblastoma-associatedprotein 1) (RBAP-1). 2Show
7H2AFXH2AX_HUMANHistone H2A.x (H2a/x). 1Show
8MCM2MCM2_HUMANDNA replication licensing factor MCM2 (Minichromosome maintenanceprotein 2 homolog) (Nuclear protein BM28). 1Show
9MDM2MDM2_HUMANE3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2 (EC 6.3.2.-) (p53-binding proteinMdm2) (Oncoprotein Mdm2) (Double minute 2 protein) (Hdm2). 1Show
10TP53P53_HUMANCellular tumor antigen p53 (Tumor suppressor p53) (Phosphoprotein p53)(Antigen NY-CO-13). 4Show
11RAD17RAD17_HUMANCell cycle checkpoint protein RAD17 (hRad17) (RF-C/activator 1homolog). 7Show
12SMC1ASMC1A_HUMANStructural maintenance of chromosomes protein 1A (SMC1alpha protein)(Sb1.8). 1Show
13TBL2TBL2_HUMANTransducin beta-like 2 protein (WS beta-transducin repeats protein)(WS-betaTRP) (Williams-Beuren syndrome chromosomal region 13 protein). 1Show
14XPAXPA_HUMANDNA-repair protein complementing XP-A cells (Xeroderma pigmentosumgroup A-complementing protein). 2Show



The substrate proteins of kinase family ATR

No.Gene NameUniProtKB IDProtein DescriptionNumber of kinase family-specific phosphorylated sitesView
1ATRIPATRIP_HUMANATR-interacting protein (ATM and Rad3-related-interacting protein). 4Show
2BRCA1BRCA1_HUMANBreast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (RING finger protein 53). 17Show
3CHEK1CHK1_HUMANSerine/threonine-protein kinase Chk1 (EC 2.7.11.1). 6Show
4CHEK2CHK2_HUMANSerine/threonine-protein kinase Chk2 (EC 2.7.11.1) (Cds1). 6Show
5CREB1CREB1_HUMANcAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). 1Show
6E2F1E2F1_HUMANTranscription factor E2F1 (E2F-1) (Retinoblastoma-binding protein 3)(RBBP-3) (PRB-binding protein E2F-1) (PBR3) (Retinoblastoma-associatedprotein 1) (RBAP-1). 2Show
7H2AFXH2AX_HUMANHistone H2A.x (H2a/x). 1Show
8MCM2MCM2_HUMANDNA replication licensing factor MCM2 (Minichromosome maintenanceprotein 2 homolog) (Nuclear protein BM28). 1Show
9MDM2MDM2_HUMANE3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2 (EC 6.3.2.-) (p53-binding proteinMdm2) (Oncoprotein Mdm2) (Double minute 2 protein) (Hdm2). 1Show
10TP53P53_HUMANCellular tumor antigen p53 (Tumor suppressor p53) (Phosphoprotein p53)(Antigen NY-CO-13). 4Show
11RAD17RAD17_HUMANCell cycle checkpoint protein RAD17 (hRad17) (RF-C/activator 1homolog). 7Show
12SMC1ASMC1A_HUMANStructural maintenance of chromosomes protein 1A (SMC1alpha protein)(Sb1.8). 1Show
13TBL2TBL2_HUMANTransducin beta-like 2 protein (WS beta-transducin repeats protein)(WS-betaTRP) (Williams-Beuren syndrome chromosomal region 13 protein). 1Show
14XPAXPA_HUMANDNA-repair protein complementing XP-A cells (Xeroderma pigmentosumgroup A-complementing protein). 2Show