|Group: Atypical Family: PIKK Subfamily: DNAPK|
Description: protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic polypeptide
Gene Symbol: PRKDC
Synonyms: DNAPK, DNPK1, HYRC, HYRC1, XRCC7, p350
UniprotKB/SwissProt: PRKDC_HUMAN (P78527)
Function: Serine/threonine-protein kinase that acts as a molecular sensor for DNA damage. Involved in DNA nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) required for double-strand break (DSB) repair and V(D)J recombination. Must be bound to DNA to express its catalytic properties. Promotes processing of hairpin DNA structures in V(D)J recombination by activation of the hairpin endonuclease artemis (DCLRE1C). The assembly of the DNA-PK complex at DNA ends is also required for the NHEJ ligation step. Required to protect and align broken ends of DNA. May also act as a scaffold protein to aid the localization of DNA repair proteins to the site of damage. Found at the ends of chromosomes, suggesting a further role in the maintenance of telomeric stability and the prevention of chromosomal end fusion. Also involved in modulation of transcription. Recognizes the substrate consensus sequence [ST]-Q. Phosphorylates 'Ser-139' of histone variant H2AX/H2AFX, thereby regulating DNA damage response mechanism. Phosphorylates DCLRE1C, c-Abl/ABL1, histone H1, HSPCA, c-jun/JUN, p53/TP53, PARP1, POU2F1, DHX9, SRF, XRCC1, XRCC1, XRCC4, XRCC5, XRCC6, WRN, c-myc/MYC and RFA2. Can phosphorylate C1D not only in the presence of linear DNA but also in the presence of supercoiled DNA. Ability to phosphorylate TP53/p53 in the presence of supercoiled DNA is dependent on C1D.
Subcellular Localization: Nucleus.